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Home > Economics FAQs Blogs > Are subsidies and grants examples of structural deficits in the context of a budget deficit?

Are subsidies and grants examples of structural deficits in the context of a budget deficit?

Relevant Topics

This question pertains to topics in Macroeconomics, such as Fiscal Policy, Budget Deficit, Structural Deficit, Subsidies, Grants


Fiscal Policy: Government policy relating to its spending and taxation.

Budget Deficit: When a government's expenditures exceed its revenues.

Structural Deficit: A budget deficit that results from a fundamental imbalance in government receipts and expenditures, as opposed to one based on one-off or short-term factors.

Subsidies and Grants: Financial aid provided by the government to individuals or entities to promote certain behaviours or activities.

Detailed Explanation:

A structural deficit occurs when a government's spending regularly exceeds its revenues over an economic cycle, irrespective of whether the economy is in a boom or a recession. This is typically due to long-term government policies and commitments, rather than short-term economic conditions or temporary spending measures.

Subsidies and grants can contribute to a structural deficit if they represent ongoing, long-term commitments that exceed the government's recurring revenue. These are often used to promote social or economic objectives, such as supporting industries facing difficulties, incentivising certain behaviours, or supporting disadvantaged individuals or groups.

Therefore, if a government has substantial, ongoing subsidy and grant programmes that are not covered by its regular revenue, these could contribute to a structural deficit. However, it's important to remember that subsidies and grants are not the cause of structural deficits, but rather a reflection of a government's fiscal policy decisions.


Agricultural Subsidies in the European Union: The EU's Common Agricultural Policy provides subsidies to farmers and agricultural businesses, representing a significant proportion of the EU's budget. This is a long-term commitment and could contribute to a structural deficit if not offset by sufficient revenues.

Government Grants in the United States: The US federal government provides numerous grants to states, local governments, and non-profit organisations for various purposes, from education to healthcare to infrastructure. These long-term commitments can contribute to the structural deficit if revenues do not cover expenditures.


Subsidies and grants, as long-term fiscal policy commitments, can contribute to a structural deficit if they lead to regular government expenditures that exceed revenues. However, they are not inherently indicative of a structural deficit, which is more fundamentally a result of a mismatch between a government's overall spending and revenue over an economic cycle. Examples include the EU's agricultural subsidies and US government grants, which represent significant, ongoing financial commitments.

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