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What is the impact of productivity on the current account?

Relevant Topics

This question pertains to topics in Macroeconomics, such as Productivity, International Trade, and Balance of Payments.


Productivity: It refers to a measure of the efficiency of production. It's usually calculated as the ratio of the total output to the total inputs used in the production process.

Current Account: It is a component of a country's balance of payments that measures the trade of goods, services, and unilateral transfers (such as foreign aid).

Detailed Explanation:

An increase in productivity can significantly impact a country's current account balance in the following ways:

Increased Exports: If productivity improves, a country can produce more goods and services at a lower cost. This can make its products more competitive internationally, leading to an increase in exports, which could improve the current account balance.

Decreased Imports:
High domestic productivity might reduce the need for imports as local goods become more competitive, further benefiting the current account balance.
Income from abroad: Increased productivity can also lead to foreign investments in domestic industries, bringing additional income from abroad and improving the current account balance.


Japan, known for its high levels of productivity, especially in the automotive and electronics sectors, has consistently run a current account surplus, largely due to the high demand for its exports. As of 2020, Japan’s current account surplus was around 3.6% of the country's GDP.

is another example where high productivity in sectors like automobiles and machinery has led to a strong export performance. In 2019, Germany's current account surplus was approximately 7.4% of its GDP, among the highest in the world.


The level of productivity in a country can have a substantial impact on its current account balance. Enhanced productivity can potentially lead to increased exports and decreased imports, both of which can improve the current account balance. Furthermore, increased productivity can also attract foreign investment, thereby positively affecting the current account. However, it's important to remember that other factors, such as exchange rates, inflation, and economic policies, can also influence the current account balance.

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