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Home > Wednesday Wisdoms: Newsletter > A Level Economics: Doing the same thing, expecting a different result, does not work!

Welcome to the 22nd edition of Wednesday Wisdoms by EdGenie!

Every Wednesday I send out actionable tips, tricks and real-world application insights from my 13-year experience coaching students to achieve As and A* in their Economics and Business A Levels.

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Doing the same thing, expecting a different result, does not work!

Greetings, A-Level Economics students!

As someone who's taught over 1,000 students, I've seen it all.

The pursuit of As and A*s is no small feat.
However, one thing stands clear: doing the same thing and expecting different results is a recipe for stagnation.

Here's the real talk:

📚 If you're buried in the same textbooks, replaying the same YouTube tutorials, or revisiting the same study materials with no improvement in grades, it's time for a change.

🔁 Repetition without progression is futile. The stark reality is, with traditional methods, only a small fraction - about 6 out of 100 students - achieve that coveted A*. I believe this number should be closer to 20%!

🕒 I often see students thinking things are 'going okay' or delaying the vital changes needed to elevate their performance. This delay can be costly.

So, what should you do?

🔍 Assess and Act: Talk to your parents, consult your teachers, and most importantly, have an honest conversation with yourself. Are your current methods truly effective?

🔄 Change the Mainframe: It’s not just about working harder, but working smarter. Explore new resources, try different revision techniques, and seek guidance outside your usual circles.

Remember, the journey to academic excellence in A-Level Economics isn't a solo venture. It's about adapting, evolving, and seeking help when needed.
Make the change.

Transform your approach.

Let's aim for those As and A*s together!

Best Regards,


Are electric cars too expensive to tempt motorists away from petrol and diesel vehicles?​


🚗 EVs vs Petrol/Diesel Costs: Electric vehicles (EVs) are scrutinised for their cost-effectiveness compared to traditional petrol and diesel cars amid global cost-of-living concerns.

💰 Upfront Cost Concerns: UK Prime Minister Rishi Sunak cited high upfront EV costs as a barrier, delaying a ban on new petrol and diesel sales to 2035.

🔋 Battery Cost Reduction: Battery prices have dropped by 14% over the past year, with Bloomberg New Energy Finance forecasting price parity for electric SUVs in Europe by 2025.

📉 Secondhand EV Market Shift: Data from Auto Trader shows a price convergence between used EVs and their petrol counterparts, with a Renault Zoe's cost gap closing from £7,000 to zero within two months in 2022.

Lifetime Cost Advantage: The UK's Climate Change Committee states that EVs will be significantly cheaper to own and operate compared to petrol and diesel vehicles.

🛠️ Maintenance and Energy Efficiency: EVs require less maintenance due to fewer moving parts and are more energy-efficient, leading to lower running costs.

🇺🇸 Cost Dynamics in the USA: The American Automobile Association suggests that EVs are competitive against combustion engines, costing an average of 67 cents per mile over their lifespan.

🏙️ Urban vs Rural Considerations: In cities like Los Angeles, EVs make financial sense, while long-distance drivers in Texas may face different cost-benefit analyses.

🔌 Charging Cost Disparity: The cost of home charging versus public rapid chargers raises concerns about affordability, particularly for poorer households without home charging access.

📈 Insurance Premiums Increase: In the UK, EV insurance premiums saw a 72% rise year-on-year to October, compared to a 29% increase for petrol and diesel cars.

🛣️ Future Fuel Taxes: European politicians anticipate taxing electricity to compensate for declining fossil fuel duty, which could affect future EV running costs.

🧐 Long-term Savings: Despite higher initial prices, EVs are becoming more cost-competitive, with long-term ownership expected to offer savings to consumers.

A Level Economics Questions:

Q: How might the cross-elasticity of demand (XED) between electric vehicles (EVs) and petrol vehicles be affected by the convergence of secondhand prices?
A: As the prices of secondhand EVs and petrol vehicles converge, the XED between them is likely to become more positive, indicating that they are closer substitutes for each other. Consumers may be more willing to switch to EVs as the price gap narrows, suggesting a higher degree of substitutability and increased cross-price elasticity.

Q: Discuss the potential market failure associated with the underproduction of EVs in the context of environmental benefits.
A: The underproduction of EVs can be seen as a market failure due to their positive externalities, such as reduced air pollution and lower greenhouse gas emissions, which are not fully accounted for in their market price. This leads to a social benefit greater than the private benefit, resulting in a socially suboptimal level of production and consumption from the market without government intervention.

Q: Evaluate the impact of a 72% increase in EV insurance premiums on the market for EVs.
A: A 72% increase in EV insurance premiums could potentially decrease the demand for EVs, as the higher cost of ownership makes them less economically attractive compared to petrol or diesel vehicles. This could lead to a negative cross-elasticity of demand, where the increase in the price of a related good (insurance) reduces the demand for EVs.

Q: How could subsidies for EVs correct the market failure identified in Question 2?
A: Subsidies for EVs can correct the market failure by lowering the cost to consumers, thereby encouraging greater adoption of EVs. This aligns the private cost with the social cost, promoting an increase in production and consumption to a level closer to the social optimum, thus internalizing the positive externalities associated with EVs.

Possible A Level Economics 25 Marker Question

Discuss the potential role of government policies in reducing market failure associated Petrol and Diesel Cars.

Infographic of the Week

The Global Financial Powerhouses of 2023: New York Leads, Asia Rises

In 2023, New York reigns as the world's premier financial center, maintaining its position with a $46 trillion stock market capitalization, which constitutes 40% of the global total. London, retaining its second rank, faces challenges post-Brexit as its dominance in international banking diminishes. Singapore and Hong Kong secure the third and fourth positions, respectively, with Singapore's diplomatic neutrality and Hong Kong's deep market liquidity being key factors. San Francisco and Los Angeles also feature prominently. Asian financial hubs, particularly Shanghai, show a mix of rank shifts, with Shanghai holding the seventh position, hosting Asia's largest stock exchange at $6.6 trillion. The Z/Yen report anticipates Seoul, Singapore, and Kigali to grow in prominence as financial centers, with Seoul proposing tax incentives to attract foreign companies. This evolution reflects Asia's growing economic influence, hinting at a potential shift in global financial dynamics.

Chart of the Week

Airline Industry's Resilient Comeback Post-Covid with Modest Profits

The global airline industry, having navigated through the Covid-19 crisis, is set to mark a notable turnaround in 2023. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) reports an expected net profit of $23.3 billion for the year, a significant rebound from the $3.8 billion loss in 2022 and surpassing the initial modest projection of $4.7 billion. Despite this recovery, IATA's Director General Willie Walsh highlights that the industry is still grappling with thin profit margins, averaging just $5.45 per passenger – barely enough to cover a basic coffee in London. The industry is anticipated to reach an all-time high with revenues of $964 billion in 2024, including an 18% increase in passenger revenue over 2019 figures, attributed to more flights and improved passenger yields. However, challenges persist due to stringent regulations, high costs, and a monopolistic supply chain, even as the industry plays a crucial role in supporting over 3 million jobs globally.

Macroeconomic Data

Whenever you're ready there is one way I can help you.

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A huge thanks for hopping on board EdGenie's Wednesday Wisdoms newsletter! 
I'm Emre, and I've got a big goal - to make A* education accessible to all A-level students.
And it Starts With You!

Emre Aksahin
Chief Learning Officer at Edgenie