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Home > Wednesday Wisdoms: Newsletter >From Okay to Outstanding: Upgrade Your Econ Essays with Rich Vocabulary!

Welcome to the20th edition of Wednesday Wisdoms by EdGenie!

Every Wednesday I send out actionable tips, tricks and real-world application insights from my 13-year experience coaching students to achieve As and A* in their Economics and Business A Levels.

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From Okay to Outstanding: Upgrade Your Econ Essays with Rich Vocabulary!

Do you know what separates an okay essay from a top-tier one in A-level economics?

It's the use of rich economic terminology 🌟
Let's break this down with two examples:

Example 1: Basic Explanation vs. Power-Packed Economic Analysis
Without Economic Terminology:
"When the government decides to cut taxes, people end up with more money in their pockets. This might lead them to spend more, boosting businesses and possibly improving the overall economy."

With Economic Terminology:
"When the government implements expansionary fiscal policy through a reduction in direct taxation, disposable income increases. This surge in disposable income enhances consumer spending, stimulating aggregate demand. Consequently, this uplift in aggregate demand potentially triggers a multiplier effect, bolstering economic growth and reducing cyclical unemployment."

Notice how the second explanation delves deeper, using economic terms to provide a more robust and insightful analysis.
Example 2: Simplistic Analysis vs. Technically Sound Economic Argument

Without Economic Terminology:
"If interest rates are increased by the central bank, it could make borrowing more expensive. This might slow down people's spending and borrowing habits, reducing prices."

With Economic Terminology:
"In response to inflationary pressures, a central bank's decision to hike interest rates, as a part of contractionary monetary policy, directly affects the cost of borrowing. This increase in interest rates deters consumer spending and investment due to higher interest payments, leading to a contraction in aggregate demand. Such a monetary stance can be instrumental in tempering demand-pull inflation and stabilising an overheating economy, albeit with potential short-term trade-offs in economic growth and employment."

In this example, the nuanced use of terms like "contractionary monetary policy," "aggregate demand," and "demand-pull inflation" clearly illustrates the deeper understanding of economic mechanisms at play.
(FYI - these aren't full Chains of analysis for a particular question)

Why Does This Matter?
  • Showcases Depth of Knowledge: Utilising economic terminology and theories accurately demonstrates your comprehensive understanding of the subject.
  • Enhances Argument Quality: A rich economic vocabulary allows you to construct more persuasive and analytical arguments.
  • Boosts Your Grades: Examiners look for evidence of your ability to use and apply economic terminology and theories. This is a sure-shot way to bag those extra marks.

Your Mission:
In your next essay, challenge yourself.

Aim to integrate as many economic terms and theories as you can.
It will not only enrich your essay but also solidify your understanding of economics.

Remember, it’s not about using jargon for the sake of it, but about accurately applying these terms to showcase your economic prowess.


​Will curbs to migration hit the UK economy?

Summary

📉 Major Migration Cuts Announced: The UK government unveils plans to significantly reduce net migration, potentially affecting 300,000 people who were eligible last year.

💼 Economic Impact of Workforce Reduction: A drop in the workforce, by about 1% of the total, could hinder the overall size of the UK economy, though per capita adjustments show mixed results.

🏥 Healthcare Sector Exemption: Social care workers are exempt from the main policy of increasing salary thresholds for visas, mitigating impact in a sector already under strain.

📊 Workforce Demographics Shift: The UK’s workforce demographics are changing, with an expected decline in workers relative to pensioners, affecting tax revenues and pension support.

🚫 Dependant Focus in Policy: The government's immigration cut largely targets dependants of workers and students, aiming to reduce economic impact.

🌍 Post-Brexit Visa Changes: After Brexit, the UK has seen net emigration of EU workers, replaced by a higher number of non-EU migrants due to visa policy changes.

👩‍🏫 Student Visa Incentives: To attract international students, the government offers a graduate route to stay in the UK, used extensively by Indian students.

🤔 Balancing Acts in Policy: The government's policy balances economic needs with migration control, but long-term reliance on foreign workers remains unresolved.

📚 Training Domestic Workforce Challenges: Despite political focus, training up a British workforce to replace foreign workers has not materialised, especially post-pandemic.

💷 Financial Implications for Health and Social Care: Substantial funding, potentially billions, would be needed for the NHS and social care to adapt to higher wages and workforce changes.

Uncertain Economic Outcomes: It's unclear if cuts to net migration will significantly hamper British growth, as the government aims to attract migrants with immediate economic benefits.

A Level Economics Questions:

Q: Evaluate the potential impact of a decrease in the workforce on the UK’s aggregate demand.​
​A: A decrease in the workforce could lead to a reduction in aggregate demand. With fewer workers, overall income in the economy would decline, leading to reduced consumer spending. This reduction in spending could further lead to a decrease in business investment due to lower demand for goods and services, potentially slowing down economic growth.

Q: Discuss how changes in net migration could affect the dependency ratio in the UK.
A: Changes in net migration, particularly a reduction, could worsen the dependency ratio (the ratio of non-working population to working population). With fewer working-age individuals (especially migrants who often fall into this category) entering the workforce, a larger proportion of the population would consist of dependents (children and the elderly), increasing pressure on the working population to support these groups through taxes and social services.

Q: How could the government's migration policy shift impact the UK’s balance of payments?
A: The migration policy shift could impact the UK's balance of payments in several ways. A reduction in migrant workers might lead to a decrease in remittances sent abroad, potentially improving the current account. However, if the policy leads to a labor shortage and reduced output, it could negatively affect exports. Additionally, if international students are deterred, this could impact the service balance, as education exports are a significant component.

Q: Assess the potential long-term economic effects of a declining workforce relative to pensioners in the UK.
A: A declining workforce relative to pensioners can have several long-term economic effects. It can increase the burden on the working-age population to support an ageing population, potentially leading to higher taxes and reduced disposable income. This demographic shift can also strain public finances, as more spending is required for healthcare and pensions, possibly leading to higher public debt or reduced spending in other areas.

Possible A Level Economics 25 Marker Question

Evaluate the potential economic consequences of the UK government's decision to significantly reduce net migration on the labour market, public finances, and the broader economy.

Infographic of the Week

Global Import Dynamics: Key Players and Emerging Trends in 2022

In 2022, global imports soared to a staggering $25.6 trillion, mirroring the U.S. GDP in scale. The U.S. topped the chart as the largest importer with $3.4 trillion, despite a backdrop of inflation and market uncertainty, marking a 15% annual increase. China followed with $2.7 trillion in imports, albeit with a modest 1% growth. European nations like Germany ($1.57 trillion) and the Netherlands ($899 billion) featured prominently, with the EU leading in agricultural, fuel, mining, and automotive product imports. Global import volumes are projected to contract by up to 1.2% in 2023 across key regions, partly due to reduced manufacturing demand. Intermediate goods, crucial in production chains, saw a decrease in trade share to 48.5% from a three-year average of 51%. Factors such as subsidies, export bans, and local production incentives like the U.S.'s $52.7 billion CHIPS Act are influencing these trade patterns, hinting at possible trends towards de-globalisation.

Chart of the Week

Emerging Business Trends: Navigating Shifting Expectations in Industry Sectors

The graph presents a compelling overview of the changing landscape for new business creation across various industries. In 2022, respondents anticipate the most significant growth in 'Physical products' for advanced industries, with a notable 72% expecting their organisations to build in this sector. Meanwhile, the 'Technology, media, and telecom' sector is projected to focus primarily on 'Data, analytics, and AI platforms', with 62% of respondents seeing this as a key area of expansion. A substantial shift towards 'Environmental sustainability-focused businesses' is also evident, especially in the energy and materials industry, with 46% of respondents foreseeing growth. The healthcare and life sciences sector shows a strong inclination towards 'Connected products', such as the Internet of Things (IoT), with 51% of respondents predicting an emphasis here. The data reflects a strategic pivot towards technologically advanced and sustainability-focused business models, signaling an adaptation to global economic and environmental challenges.

Macroeconomic Data


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